History Of Indonesian, King Sisingamangaraja XII (1845 – 1907)

King Sisingamangaraja XII

King Sisingamangaraja XII


Sisingamangaraja is a big name in the history of Batak.

He was a unifying figure. Sisingamangaraja dynasty began in the mid 1500’s, when King Sisingamangaraja I was born in 1515 began to reign. He was not the first king there. The government before it is known as the anesthetic. A narcotic is a collection of about seven horja. While one consisted of 20 huta horja or village has its own leadership. There Stunning Toba, Patane Bolon, Silindung and so on.

Of the 12 people who continued the dynasty Sisingamangaraja, Singamangaraja XII is the most popular king, and was appointed as a national hero since 9 November 1961. Augustin made his paintings Sibarani then printed on the old money of Rp 1,000, is the only “free” themselves Sisingamangaraja. He ascended the throne in 1876 succeeded his father Singamangaraja XI named Ompu Sohahuaon.

The coronation of the Maharaja Singamangaraja XII in Toba country simultaneously with the start of open door policy (open door policy). Holland felt the need to secure foreign capital operating in Indonesia are not willing to sign a Verkaring Korte (short contract) in Sumatra and Aceh especially Tapanuli. Both consultants are opening trade relations with other European countries. Holland himself tried to instill in the sultanate is monopilinya. Different political situation encourages further to give birth to a protracted battle to tens of years.

One which continues to be a subject of discussion today, is a fad religion Sisingamangaraja XII. Some believe, he professed adherents of the old belief that most of the Batak people. Similar to the two major world religions Islam and Christianity, Batak religion knows only one Almighty, Debata Mulajadi Na Bolon or Ompu Mulajadi Nabolon. Batak religion a long time now been abandoned, though of course the traditional beliefs are still maintained.

Combat power of a very long time because in tunjang by the religious teachings of Islam. It is rarely rarely pointed out by historians, because it was less relevant to the title of National Hero. Or because of other reasons to feel less need membicarakanya. If yet want to talk about religion in Singamangaraja embraced by Si XII, they are more likely to recognize Si XII Singamangaraja Pelbagu religion. Pelbagu kind of animistic religions worship gods who know well. Debata Mulajadi as Mahadeva. Also mengaenal teaching Trimurti: Guru (the god of glory), Ser Debata

One thing that is difficult to accept is when the Si XII Singamangaraja animistic religion, because we consider kalu Singamangaraja Cap Si XII which reads Arabic letters reads: Here in the land of Maharaja Cap Bakara village Toba city. Hijra of the Prophet 1304. Stamp is clearly visible on the use of Hijra of the Prophet. This gives a picture of the magnitude of the influence of the teachings of Islam that animates self Singamangaraja Si XII. The letter also in the Batak who still capture, is the same as the action Diponegoro who still uses the same letter in writing Java.

Similarly, if we look at the flag of war. Seen the influence of Islam in the picture saber, sun and moon. It would be more obvious if we follow the description of a few magazines or newspapers that reported about the Dutch in the profess religion by Si Singamangaraja XII, among others; Volgens berichten van de bevolking Moet de Togen, woordige titularis een 5 Jaren not geleden tot den Islam jizn bekeerd, doch werd hij fanatiek Islamiet Geen Geen Druk op en oefende jizn ongeving zich om te uit bekeeren. (Sukatulis, 1907, p, 1)

According to the news of the population, the current king (mean Titularis is Singamangaraja Si XII) since five years ago converted to Islam a fanatical, as he meneka so that the people around him change his religion. News on this data gives us that the Si XII Singamangaraja Muslim. In addition, the add also about the people who are not Muslims, and Si XII Singamangaraja not hold duress or other pressure. This also gives an overview about the state of Si also Singamangaraja XII against the teachings of the religion itself.

Mohammad Said, in his book Sisingamangaraja XII declared the possibility that Sisingamangaraja a true Muslim. Guidelines are derived from information in the writings of a Dutch missionary, JH Meerwaldt, who had been a teacher at nearby Narumonda Porsea. Meerwaldt heard Sisingamangaja already embraced Islam.

In the magazine Rheinische Missionsgessellschaft published in 1907 in Germany which stated that Sisingamangaraja, despite the super-natural power to say no to him, to fall, and that the same is true for the shift he became a Muslim and his relationship to the people of Aceh.

Relations with the Dutch attack Aceh occurred Batak land in 1877. Because of weak tactically, Sisingamangaraja XII in a relationship with the troops in Aceh and the Acehnese figures Muslim fighters to improve his army’s combat capability. He went to the Gayo, Alas, Singkel, and Pidie in Aceh and also take part in war exercises Keumala.

Exchange of officers carried out. Trained officers involved in the troop Aceh Sisingamangaraja XII to help the strategy of winning the war, while officers continue to be trained in Aceh Batak. One teacher Mengambat, one warlord Sisingamangaraja XII. Teachers earned Teungku Mengambat Aceh.

The information is based on resident LC Kort Verslag Welsink on August 16, 1906. In it is mentioned, a commander named Teacher Mengambat Sisingamangaraja XII of Salak (Kab. Pakpak Hasundutan now) had converted to Islam. This information was obtained by Welsink of Ompu Onggung and Defence Batu.

In a confidential letter to the Department van Oorlog, the Netherlands, Lieutenant L. van Vuuren and Berenshot on 19 July 1907 stated, Dat de oude S vaststaatdat bet. S. M. Met zijn tot den zonns waren over gegaan Islam, al wel niet zullen zij Mohamedan in merg en zijn geworden been / That is definitely S. S. M. old with her sons had converted to Islam, although Islam is not just how pervasive they are in his soul.

Dutch Newspapers Algemcene Handeslsblad on July 3, 1907 edition, as stated Mohammad Said in his book, wrote, “According to the news of the occupation, never mind that now is the king (ie Sisingamangaraja) since five years ago have embraced Islam. But he was not an Islamic fanatic, so he does not push people around him change his religion “.

This information further strengthen the notion Sisingamangaraja XII had embraced Islam. Moreover, Islamic patterns seen in the pattern of government administration, such as flags and seals.

Sisingamangaraja XII flag is red and white., Bearing the sword twin, moon and stars, similar to the flag of Saudi Arabia now. The difference is the month in which the flag Sisingamangaraja XII is located at the right seblah sword is a full moon or full moon, not the crescent moon. While the stars that are located on the left has eight serrations, not five as is commonly seen in mosques in other Islamic traditions symbol. However, eight jagged objects could also be interpreted as the sun.

The exterior of which has 12 stamp Sisingamangaraja jagged edges also use the Hijri era and the Arabic alphabet. But the Arabic alphabet to write the Batak language, “This is the cap Maharaja in Kampung Negri Toba Bakara The city name, Hijrat Prophet 1304”. While the script writing bataknya Ahu Sahap ni mian Bakara Mangaraja Lion Mars, which means I’m Mr. Lion Cap Mangaraja enthroned in Bakara.

“Actually, the flag and the seal was already characterizing feature of Islam in government Sisingamangaraja. Thus a strong possibility he had embraced Islam, but there is no authentic data so it can not be ascertained the truth, “said Chairman of the Ulema Council of North Sumatra Siregar H Aziz Mahmud.

For more in-depth delivered, Dada Meuraxa in his book History of Culture of the Tribes in North Sumatra. “Sisingamangaraja XII had converted to Islam and circumcised in Aceh when he came to Banda Aceh for help weapons,” said Meuraxa.

In the book Meuraxa said the statement was based on a source statement, Tuanku Hashim, citing his aunt who is also Commander Polem wife who witnessed the ceremony in Aceh.

“Although not enough facts Sisingamangaraja a Muslim, but his motion is affected by the story of Islam. Up to stamp his own kingdom Arabic script. Wearing the flag of stars and the moon two Arab sword was also given the fact the light, “wrote Dada Meuraxa.

Singamangaraja Ompu Pulobatu XII himself named, was born on February 18, 1845 and died June 7, 1907 in a battle with the Dutch in the Dairi. A bullet penetrated his chest. Toward the last breath, by gunfire Dutch troops led by Captain Hans Christoffel, he still says, “Ahu Sisingamangaraja”.

The words were synonymous with perseverance berjuang.Turut that time also shot his two sons Patuan Nagari and Patuan Anggi, and his daughter Princess Lopian.

While the rest of his family captive in Tarutung. That’s the end of the battle against Dutch colonialism in the Batak lands since 1877. Sisingamangaraja himself later interred in the Dutch military on June 22, 1907 at Silindung. The new tomb was moved to Soposurung, Balige like this since June 17, 1953.  (*)




By rajasisingamangaraja